No votes yet

Putting Evidence Into Practice: Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Evolving Evidence for Treatment and Management From 2009-2014

Mei R. Fu
Jie Deng
Jane M. Armer
CJON 2014, 18(6), 68-79 DOI: 10.1188/14.CJON.S3.68-79

Cancer-related lymphedema is a progressive and chronic syndrome of abnormal swelling and multiple symptoms resulting from cancer treatment. Even with modern medical advances, lymphedema remains a major health problem affecting thousands of cancer survivors. To provide healthcare professionals with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for lymphedema treatment and management, a systematic review was conducted to evaluate 75 selected articles from 2009-2014 by the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice lymphedema team. Findings of the systematic review support complete decongestive therapy, compression bandages, and compression garments with highest evidence for best clinical practice. Weight management, full-body exercise, information provision, prevention, and early intervention protocols are likely to be effective for clinical practice. Historic recommendations for activity restriction and avoidance of aerobic and resistive exercises that limit cancer survivors' daily lives have been challenged with more evidence. Cancer survivors may not need to restrict activities such as resistive or aerobic exercises and weightlifting with gradual exercise progression. Future research should focus on providing high-level evidence using randomized clinical trials with larger samples and studying lymphedema beyond breast cancer.


Ahmed Omar, M. T., Abd-El-Gayed Ebid, A., & El Morsy, A. M. (2011). Treatment of post-mastectomy lymphedema with laser therapy: Double blind placebo control randomized study. <i>Journal of Surgical Research, 165</i>, 82-90. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2010.03.050

American Cancer Society. (2014). <i>Cancer facts and figures, 2014.</i> Atlanta, GA: Author.

Anderson, R. T., Kimmick, G. G., McCoy, T. P., Hopkins, J., Levine, E., Miller, G., … Mihalko, S. L. (2012). A randomized trial of exercise on well-being and function following breast cancer surgery: The RESTORE trial. <i>Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice, 6</i>, 172-181. doi:10.1007/s11764-011-0208-4

Bae, H., & Kim, H. J. (2013). Clinical outcomes of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with secondary lymphedema: A pilot study. <i>Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37</i>, 229-234. doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.2.229

Beck, M., Wanchai, A., Stewart, B. R., Cormier, J. N., & Armer, J. M. (2012). Palliative care for cancer-related lymphedema: A systematic review. <i>Journal of Palliative Medicine, 15</i>, 821-827. doi:10.1089/jpm.2011.0494

Belmonte, R., Tejero, M., Ferrer, M., Muniesa, J. M., Duarte, E., Cunillera, O., & Escalada, F. (2012). Efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: A cross-over randomized trial. <i>Clinical Rehabilitation, 26</i>, 607-618. doi:10.1177/0269215511427414

Boccardo, F. M., Ansaldi, F., Bellini, C., Accogli, S., Taddei, G., Murdaca, G., … Campisi, C. (2009). Prospective evaluation of a prevention protocol for lymphedema following surgery for breast cancer. <i>Lymphology, 42</i>, 1-9.

Boccardo, F. M., Casabona, F., Friedman, D., Puglisi, M., De Cian, F., Ansaldi, F., & Campisi, C. (2011). Surgical prevention of arm lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. <i>Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18</i>, 2500-2505. doi:10.1245/s10434-011-1624-4

Boneti, C., Badgwell, B., Roberston, Y., Korourian, S., Adkins, L., & Klimberg, V. (2012). Axillary reverse mapping (ARM): Initial results of phase II trial in preventing lymphedema after lymphadenectomy. <i>Minerva Ginecologica, 64</i>, 421-430.

Bordin, N. A., Guerreiro Godoy, M. F., & Pereira de Godoy, J. M. (2009). Mechanical lymphatic drainage in the treatment of arm lymphedema. <i>Indian Journal of Cancer, 46</i>, 337-339. doi:10.4103/0019-509X.55556

Carmeli, E., & Bartoletti, R. (2011). Retrospective trial of complete decongestive physical therapy for lower extremity secondary lymphedema in melanoma patients. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 19</i>, 141-147. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0803-3

Cassileth, B. R., Van Zee, K. J., Chan, Y., Coleton, M. I., Hudis, C. A., Cohen, S., & Vickers, A. J. (2011). A safety and efficacy pilot study of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic lymphoedema. <i>Acupuncture in Medicine, 29</i>, 170-172. doi:10.1136/aim.2011.004069

Cassileth, B. R., Van Zee, K. J., Yeung, K. S., Coleton, M. I., Cohen, S., Chan, Y. H., … Hudis, C. A. (2013). Acupuncture in the treatment of upper-limb lymphedema: Results of a pilot study. <i>Cancer, 119</i>, 2455-2461. doi:10.1002/cncr.28093

Cavezzi, A., Paccasassi, S., & Elio, C. (2013). Lymphedema treatment by means of an electro-medical device based on bioresonance and vacuum technology: Clinical and lymphoscintigraphic assessment. <i>International Angiology, 32</i>, 417-423.

Chan, D. N., Lui, L. Y., & So, W. K. (2010). Effectiveness of exercise programmes on shoulder mobility and lymphoedema after axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer: Systematic review. <i>Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66</i>, 1902-1914. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05374.x

Clemens, K. E., Jaspers, B., Klaschik, E., & Nieland, P. (2010). Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of physiotherapeutic management of lymphoedema in palliative care patients. <i>Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 40</i>, 1068-1072.

Cormie, P., Galvão, D. A., Spry, N., & Newton, R. U. (2013). Neither heavy nor light load resistance exercise acutely exacerbates lymphedema in breast cancer survivor. <i>Integrative Cancer Therapies, 12</i>, 423-432. doi:10.1177/1534735413477194

Cormie, P., Pumpa, K., Galvão, D. A., Turner, E., Spry, N., Saunders, C., … Newton, R. U. (2013). Is it safe and efficacious for women with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer to lift heavy weights during exercise: A randomised controlled trial. <i>Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice, 7</i>, 413-424.

Cormier, J. N., Askew, R. L., Mungovan, K. S., Xing, Y., Ross, M. I., & Armer, J. M. (2010). Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema. <i>Cancer, 116</i>, 5138-5149. doi:10.1002/cncr.25458

Cormier, J. N., Rourke, L., Crosby, M., Chang, D., & Armer, J. M. (2012). The surgical treatment of lymphedema: A systematic review of the contemporary literature (2004-2010). <i>Annals of Surgical Oncology, 19</i>, 642-651. doi:10.1245/s10434-011-2017-4

Damstra, R. J., & Partsch, H. (2009). Compression therapy in breast cancer-related lymphedema: A randomized, controlled comparative study of relation between volume and interface pressure changes. <i>Journal of Vascular Surgery, 49</i>, 1256-1263.

Damstra, R. J., Voesten, H. G., van Schelven, W. D., & van der Lei, B. (2009). Lymphatic venous anastomosis (LVA) for treatment of secondary arm lymphedema. A prospective study of 11 LVA procedures in 10 patients with breast cancer related lymphedema and a critical review of the literature. <i>Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 113</i>, 199-206. doi:10.1007/s10549-008-9932-5

Dayes, I. S., Whelan, T. J., Julian, J. A., Parpia, S., Pritchard, K. I., D'Souza, D. P., … Levine, M. N. (2013). Randomized trial of decongestive lymphatic therapy for the treatment of lymphedema in women with breast cancer. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31</i>, 3758-3763. doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.45.7192

de Godoy, J. M., & Godoy, M. F. (2013). Evaluation of a new approach to the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy. <i>European Journal of Internal Medicine, 24</i>, 59-62. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2012.08.008

Devoogdt, N., Christiaens, M. R., Geraerts, I., Truijen, S., Smeets, A., Leunen, K., … Van Kampen, M. (2011). Effect of manual lymph drainage in addition to guidelines and exercise therapy on arm lymphoedema related to breast cancer: Randomised controlled trial. <i>BMJ, 343</i>, d5326. doi:10.1136/bmj.d5326

Dirican, A., Andacoglu, O., Johnson, R., McGuire, K., Mager, L., & Soran, A. (2011). The short-term effects of low-level laser therapy in the management of breast-cancer-related lymphedema. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 19</i>, 685-690.

Ferlay, J., Shin, H. R., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C., & Parkin, D. M. (2010). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancerBase no. 10. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://globocan.iarc.fr'>http://globocan.iarc.fr</a>

Fife, C. E., Davey, S., Maus, E. A., Guiliod, R., & Mayrovitz, H. N. (2012). A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of pneumatic compression for breast cancer-related lymphedema treatment in the home. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 20</i>, 3279-3286. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1455-2

Fong, S. S., Ng, S. S., Luk, W. S., Chung, J. W., Ho, J. S., Ying, M., & Ma, A. W. (2014). Effects of qigong exercise on upper limb lymphedema and blood flow in survivors of breast cancer: A pilot study. <i>Integrative Cancer Therapies, 13</i>, 54-61.

Fu, M. R., Chen, C. M., Haber, J., Guth, A. A., & Axelrod, D. (2010). The effect of providing information about lymphedema on the cognitive and symptom outcomes of breast cancer survivors. <i>Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17</i>, 1847-1853.

Fu, M. R., & Rosedale, M. (2009). Breast cancer survivors' experience of lymphedema related symptoms. <i>Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 38</i>, 849-859.

Gautam, A. P., Maiya, A. G., & Vidyasagar, M. S. (2011). Effect of home-based exercise program on lymphedema and quality of life in female postmastectomy patients: Pre-post intervention study. <i>Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 48</i>, 1261-1268. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2010.05.0089

Gothard, L., Haviland, J., Bryson, P., Laden, G., Glover, M., Harrison, S., … Yarnold, J. (2010). Randomised phase II trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with chronic arm lymphoedema after radiotherapy for cancer. <i>Radiotherapy and Oncology, 97</i>, 101-107. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2010.04.026

Guerreiro Godoy, M. D., Guimaraes, T. D., Oliani, A. H., & Pereira de Godoy, J. M. (2011). Association of Godoy and Godoy contention with mechanism with apparatus-assisted exercises in patients with arm lymphedema after breast cancer. <i>International Journal of General Medicine, 4</i>, 373-376. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S17139

Guerreiro Godoy, M. F., Oliani, A. H., & Pereira de Godoy, J. M. (2010). Active exercises utilizing a facilitating device in the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy. <i>German Medical Science, 8</i>, Doc31. doi:10.3205/000120

Guerreiro Godoy, M. F., Pereira, M. R., Oliani, A. H., & Pereira de Godoy, J. M. (2012). Synergic effect of compression therapy and controlled active exercises using a facilitating device in the treatment of arm lymphedema. <i>International Journal of Medical Sciences, 9</i>, 280-284. doi:10.7150/ijms.3272

Haghighat, S., Lofti-Tokaldany, M., Yunesian, M., Akbari, M. E., Nazemi, F., & Weiss, J. (2010). Comparing two treatment methods for post mastectomy lymphedema: Complex decongestive therapy alone and in combination with intermittent pneumatic compression. <i>Lymphology, 43</i>, 25-33.

Hayes, S. C., Reul-Hirche, H., & Turner, J. (2009). Exercise and secondary lymphedema: Safety, potential benefits, and research issues. <i>Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41</i>, 483-489.

Hwang, J. M., Hwang, J. H., Kim, T. W., Lee, S. Y., Chang, H. J., & Chu, I. H. (2013). Long-term effects of complex decongestive therapy in breast cancer patients with arm lymphedema after axillary dissection. <i>Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37</i>, 690-697.

Hwang, K. H., Jeong, H. J., Kim, G. C., & Sim, Y. J. (2013). Clinical effectiveness of complex decongestive physiotherapy for malignant lymphedema: A pilot study. <i>Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37</i>, 396-402. doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.3.396

Jeffs, E., & Wiseman, T. (2013). Randomized controlled trial to determine the benefit of daily home-based exercise in addition to self-care in the management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: A feasibility study. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 21</i>, 1013-1023. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1621-6

Jemal, M., Bray, F., Center, M. M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. <i>CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61</i>, 69-90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107

Johansson, K., Hayes, S., Speck, R. M., & Schmitz, K. H. (2013). Water-based exercise for patients with chronic arm lymphedema: A randomized controlled pilot trial. <i>American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92</i>, 312-319.

Johansson, K., Ohlsson, K., Ingvar, C., Albertsson, M., & Ekdahl, C. (2002). Factors associated with the development of arm lymphedema following breast cancer treatment: A match pair case-control study. <i>Lymphology, 35</i>, 59-71.

Johnson, L. A. (2014). Putting Evidence Into Practice: The process for evidence-based research. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 18</i>(Suppl.), 5-7. doi:10.1188/14.CJON.S3.5-7

Jonsson, C., & Johansson, K. (2009). Pole walking for patients with breast cancer-related arm lymphedema. <i>Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 25</i>, 165-173. doi:10.1080/09593980902776621

Kasseroller, R. G., & Brenner, E. (2010). A prospective randomised study of alginate-drenched low stretch bandages as an alternative to conventional lymphologic compression bandaging. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 18</i>, 343-350. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0658-7

Kim, D. S., Sim, Y. J., Jeong, H. J., & Kim, G. C. (2010). Effect of active resistive exercise on breast cancer-related lymphedema: A randomized controlled trial. <i>Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91</i>, 1844-1848. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.09.008

King, M., Deveaux, A., White, H., & Rayson, D. (2012). Compression garments versus compression bandaging in decongestive lymphatic therapy for breast cancer-related lymphedema: A randomized controlled trial. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 20</i>, 1031-1036. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1178-9

Kozanoglu, E., Basaran, S., Paydas, S., & Sarpel, T. (2009). Efficacy of pneumatic compression and low-level laser therapy in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema: A randomized controlled trial. <i>Clinical Rehabilitation, 23</i>, 117-124.

Kwan, M. L., Cohn, J. C., Armer, J. M., Stewart, B. R., & Cormier, J. N. (2011). Exercise in patients with lymphedema: A systematic review of the contemporary literature. <i>Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice, 5</i>, 320-336.

Langer, I., Guller, U., Berclaz, G., Koechli, O. R., Schaer, G., Fehr, M. K., … Zuber, M. (2007). Morbidity of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLN) alone versus SLN and completion axillary lymph node dissection after breast cancer surgery: A prospective Swiss multicenter study on 659 patients. <i>Annals of Surgery, 245</i>, 452-461. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000245472.47748.ec

Lasinski, B. B., Thrift, K. M., Squire, D., Austin, M. K., Smith, K. M., Wanchai, A., … Armer, J. M. (2012). A systematic review of the evidence for complete decongestive therapy in the treatment of lymphedema from 2004 to 2011. <i>PM&R, 4</i>, 580-601.

Leal, N. F., Carrara, H. H., Vieira, K. F., & Ferreira, C. H. (2009). Physiotherapy treatments for breast cancer-related lymphedema: A literature review. <i>Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 17</i>, 730-736.

Liao, S. F., Li, S. H., Huang, H. Y., Chen, S. T., Kuo, S. J., Chen, D. R., & Wei, T. S. (2013). The efficacy of complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) and predictive factors of lymphedema severity and response to CDP in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). <i>Breast, 22</i>, 703-706. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2012.12.018

Maher, J., Refshauge, K., Ward, L., Paterson, R., & Kilbreath, S. (2012). Change in extracellular fluid and arm volumes as a consequence of a single session of lymphatic massage followed by rest with or without compression. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 20</i>, 3079-3086. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1433-8

Maldonado, G. E., Perez, C. A., Covarrubias, E. E., Cabriales, S. A., Leyva, L. A., Perez, J. C., & Almaguer, D. G. (2011). Autologous stem cells for the treatment of post-mastectomy lymphedema: A pilot study. <i>Cytotherapy, 13</i>, 1249-1255.

Malicka, I., Stefanska, M., Rudziak, M., Jarmoluk, P., Pawłowska, K., Szczepanska-Gieracha, J., & Wozniewski, M. (2011). The influence of Nordic walking exercise on upper extremity strength and the volume of lymphoedema in women following breast cancer treatment. <i>Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 19</i>, 295-304. doi:10.3233/IES-2011-0430

Martin, M. L., Hernandez, M. A., Avendano, C., Rodrigues, F., & Martinez, H. (2011). Manual lymphatic drainage therapy in patients with breast cancer related lymphoedema. <i>BMC Cancer, 11</i>, 94.

McClure, M. K., McClure, R. J., Day, R., & Brufsky, A. M. (2010). Randomized controlled trial of the Breast Cancer Recovery Program for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. <i>American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64</i>, 59-72.

McLaughlin, S. A., Bagaria, S., Gibson, T., Arnold, M., Diehl, N., Crook, J., … Nguyen, J. (2013). Trends in risk reduction practices for the prevention of lymphedema in the first 12 months after breast cancer surgery. <i>Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 216</i>, 380-389. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.11.004

McLaughlin, S. A., Wright, M. J., Morris, K. T., Giron, G. L., Sampson, M. R., Brockway, J. P., … Van Zee, K. J. (2008). Prevalence of lymphedema in women with breast cancer 5 years after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection: Objective measurements. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 5213-5219.

McNeely, M. L., Campbell, K., Ospina, M., Rowe, B. H., Dabbs, K., Klassen, T. P., … Courneya, K. (2010). Exercise interventions for upper-limb dysfunction due to breast cancer treatment. <i>Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6</i>, CD005211. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005211.pub2

McNeely, M. L., Peddle, C. J., Yurick, J. L., Dayes, I. S., & Mackey, J. R. (2011). Conservative and dietary interventions for cancer-related lymphedema: A systematic review and meta-analysis. <i>Cancer, 117</i>, 1136-1148. doi:10.1002/cncr.25513

Mitchell, S. A., & Friese, C. R. (n.d.). ONS PEP (Putting Evidence Into Practice) weight of evidence classification schema. Decision rules for summative evaluation of a body of evidence. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www2.ons.org/Research/media/ons/docs/research/outcomes/weight-of-...

Moattari, M., Jaafari, B., Talei, A., Piroozi, S., Tahmasebi, S., & Zakeri, Z. (2012). The effect of combined decongestive therapy and pneumatic compression pump on lymphedema indicators in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. <i>Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 14</i>, 210-217.

Paskett, E. D., Naughton, M. J., McCoy, T. P., Case, L. D., & Abbott, J. M. (2007). The epidemiology of arm and hand swelling in premenopausal breast cancer survivors. <i>Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 16</i>, 775-782.

Petrek, J. A., Senie, R. T., Peters, M., & Rosen, P. P. (2001). Lymphedema in a cohort of breast carcinoma survivors 20 years after diagnosis. <i>Cancer, 92</i>, 1368-1377.

Poage, E., Singer, M., Armer, J. M., Poundall, M., & Shellabarger, J. (2008). Demystifying lymphedema: Development of the lymphedema Putting Evidence Into Practice card. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12</i>, 951-964. doi:10.1188/08.CJON.951-964

Randheer, S., Kadambari, D., Srinivasan, K., Bhuvaneswari, V., Bhanumathy, M., & Salaja, R. (2011). Comprehensive decongestive therapy in postmastectomy lymphedema: An Indian perspective. <i>Indian Journal of Cancer, 48</i>, 397-402.

Ridner, S. H., Fu, M. R., Wanchai, A., Stewart, B. R., Armer, J. M., & Cormier, J. N. (2012). Self-management of lymphedema: A systematic review of the literature from 2004 to 2011. <i>Nursing Research, 61</i>, 291-299. doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e31824f82b2

Ridner, S. H., Murphy, B., Deng, J., Kidd, N., Galford, E., Bonner, C., … Dietrich, M. S. (2012). A randomized clinical trial comparing advanced pneumatic truncal, chest, and arm treatment to arm treatment only in self-care of arm lymphedema. <i>Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 131</i>, 147-158. doi:10.1007/s10549-011-1795-5

Rodrick, J. R., Poage, E., Wanchai, A., Stewart, B. R., Cormier, J. N., & Armer, J. M. (2014). Complementary, alternative, and other non-complete decongestive therapy (CDT) treatment methods in the management of lymphedema: A systematic search and review. <i>PM&R, 6</i>, 250-274. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.008

Sagen, A., Karesen, R., & Risberg, M. A. (2009). Physical activity for the affected limb and arm lymphedema after breast cancer surgery. A prospective, randomized controlled trial with two years follow-up. <i>Acta Oncologica, 48</i>, 1102-1110.

Sawan, S., Mugnai, R., Lopes Ade, B., Hughes, A., & Edmondson, R. J. (2009). Lower-limb lymphedema and vulval cancer: Feasibility of prophylactic compression garments and validation of leg volume measurement. <i>International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 19</i>, 1649-1654. doi:10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a8446a

Scaffidi, M., Vulpiani, M. C., Vetrano, M., Conforti, F., Marchetti, M. R., Bonifacino, A., … Ferretti, A. (2012). Early rehabilitation reduces the onset of complications in the upper limb following breast cancer surgery. <i>European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 48</i>, 601-611.

Schaverien, M. V., Munro, K. J., Baker, P. A., & Munnoch, D. A. (2012). Liposuction for chronic lymphoedema of the upper limb: 5 years of experience. <i>Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 65</i>, 935-942. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2012.01.021

Schmitz, K. H., Ahmed, R. L., Troxel, A. B., Cheville, A., Lewis-Grant, L., Smith, R., … Chittams, J. (2010). Weight lifting for women at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema: A randomized trial. <i>JAMA, 304</i>, 2699-2705. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1837

Shih, Y. C., Xu, Y., Cormier, J. N., Giordano, S., Ridner, S. H., Buchholz, T. A., … Elting, L. S. (2009). Incidence, treatment costs, and complications of lymphedema after breast cancer among women of working age: A 2-year follow-up study. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27</i>, 2007-2014. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.3517

Stanton, A. W., Modi, S., Mellor, R. H., Levick, J. R., & Mortimer, P. S. (2009). Recent advances in breast cancer-related lymphedema of the arm: Lymphatic pump failure and predisposing factors. <i>Lymphatic Research and Biology, 7</i>, 29-45.

Tidhar, D., & Katz-Leurer, M. (2010). Aqua lymphatic therapy in women who suffer from breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema: A randomized controlled study. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 18</i>, 383-392. doi:10.1007/s00520-009-0669-4

Torress Lacomba, M., Yuste Sánchez, M. J., Zapico Goñi, Á., Prieto Merino, D., Mayoral del Moral, O., Cerezo Téllez, E., & Minayo Mogollón, E. (2010). Effectiveness of early physiotherapy to prevent lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer: Randomised, single blinded, clinical trial. <i>BMJ, 340</i>, b5396.

Tsai, H. J., Hung, H. C., Yang, J. L., Huang, C. S., & Tsauo, J. Y. (2009). Could Kinesio tape replace the bandage in decongestive lymphatic therapy for breast-cancer-related lymphedema? A pilot study. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 17</i>, 1353-1360.

Vignes, S., Blanchard, M., Arrault, M., & Porcher, R. (2013). Intensive complete decongestive physiotherapy for cancer-related upper-limb lymphedema: 11 days achieved greater volume reduction than 4. <i>Gynecologic Oncology, 131</i>, 127-130.

Vignes, S., Porcher, R., Arrault, M., & Dupuy, A. (2011). Factors influencing breast cancer-related lymphedema volume after intensive decongestive physiotherapy. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 19</i>, 935-940. doi:10.1007/s00520-010-0906-x

Woo, J. H., Park, H. S., Kim, S. C., & Kim, Y. H. (2013). The effect of lumbar sympathetic ganglion block on gynecologic cancer-related lymphedema. <i>Pain Physician, 16</i>, 345-352.

Zimmermann, A., Wozniewski, M., Szklarska, A., Lipowicz, A., & Szuba, A. (2012). Efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage in preventing secondary lymphedema after breast cancer surgery. <i>Lymphology, 45</i>, 103-112.