In Western countries, rising incidence and survival rates in childhood cancer have led to increased patient morbidity, including short- and long-term oral effects. Some acute oral complications occur three times more commonly in children than adults. This literature review sourced material from medical databases to discuss the acute and chronic oral complications of oncology treatment in children. The article explores caries, gingivitis, oral infections, and oral mucositis, as well as available tools for measuring their incidence, prevention, and treatment in children. Many tools and interventions appear to be available to prevent and treat oral complications of cancer treatment in children; however, they lack reliable and consistent research. Future research should use larger samples to report the incidence of oral complications, which would allow identification of children at increased risk. In addition, larger studies would provide baseline information to enable the construction of appropriate randomized clinical trials to test methods of prevention and proposed interventions for oral complications of cancer treatment in children.