A diverse group of agencies and organizations issues various cancer screening recommendations, which can confuse patients and healthcare providers. After risk for a particular cancer is understood, screening recommendations can be made. Healthcare providers should scrutinize carefully why particular recommendations are made and disclose the rationale to patients. Patients need to understand the strengths, limitations, risks, costs, and expected outcomes associated with recommendations for screening. Well-informed healthcare providers can encourage and facilitate dialogue with patients about cancer screening and help them make informed health promotion decisions. At the end of this article, an evidence-based pull-out reference sheet reviews the American Cancer Society's cancer screening recommendations.