Patients with cancer frequently develop taste alterations, which are manifested by food aversions and decreased caloric intake. Many etiologies are recognized, including the effect of tumors, cancer cell mitosis, vitamin deficiencies, and cytokine involvement. Preventing or improving taste alterations in patients with cancer is challenging. Clinicians play an important role in assessing, educating, and referring (when indicated) patients experiencing potential or actual taste alterations. Directions for further nursing research include the development of assessment tools and preventative strategies.