Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide and is a disease of multifactorial etiology. Strong correlations exist between the prevalence of the hepatitis B and C viruses and HCC incidence. HCC treatment may involve surgical resection, liver transplantation, locoregional treatments, and chemotherapy. Prevention of virus-related HCC is contingent upon control of hepatitis types B and C. Universal vaccination against hepatitis B could eliminate hepatitis B-related HCC; however, hepatitis C-related HCC still could occur because a vaccine for hepatitis C currently is not available. Individuals at risk for HCC should be screened for the disease. Early detection could result in improved prognosis and survival.