Background: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a rare treatment modality for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) following BK virus reactivation in the immunosuppressed population. Clinicians need to be aware of the etiology, preventive measures, complications, and various management techniques in HC while treating patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.
Objectives: This study details the pathologic progression of HC in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring BK virus after cytotoxic induction chemotherapy and haploidentical marrow transplantation.
Methods: A search of PubMed for literature published from 1973–2018 was conducted using keywords.
Findings: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in chemotherapy-induced and BK virus–associated HC is a viable management option in parallel with tapering of immunosuppressives, bladder irrigation, and IV resuscitation within the post-transplantation acute lymphoblastic leukemia population.