Background: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also called hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that affects about 1 in 7 patients undergoing this procedure. SOS/VOD is caused by the conditioning regimens administered prior to HSCT; in some cases, SOS/VOD results from chemotherapy alone. SOS/VOD usually develops within three weeks following HSCT; however, it can have later onset.
Objectives: Clearly understanding how SOS/VOD develops may support prompt detection and treatment when the condition arises.
Methods: Research on identification and management of SOS/VOD is summarized, and data from clinical trials are reviewed.
Findings: This article describes the syndrome, risk factors, signs and symptoms, and appropriate supportive care and treatment. The authors also offer some practical tips for detecting SOS/VOD and providing patient care, as well as the latest information on treating and preventing this condition.