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Cytokine Release Syndrome: Inpatient Care for Side Effects of CAR T-Cell Therapy

Laura T. Smith
Kimberly Venella
CJON 2017, 21(2), 29-34 DOI: 10.1188/17.CJON.S2.29-34

Background: Pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia are more often being treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. As with any new therapy, the management of this patient population has a unique set of challenges. The side effects of this therapy can range from mild to severe, with cytokine release syndrome being the most common reason for hospitalization.

Objectives: This article presents common side effects, treatments, and challenges of caring for hospitalized patients who have received CAR T-cell therapy.

Methods: A case study is used to illustrate a patient’s inpatient hospitalization course after receiving CAR T-cell therapy, including the management of treatment-related toxicities.

Findings: As treatments emerge, nurses will be challenged with learning the associated side effects and toxicities. CAR T-cell therapy can result in a unique trajectory of potential symptoms and the potential for complete resolution of disease.

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