Although the third leading cancer in incidence following breast and prostate, lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of lung cancer cases are detected at an advanced stage when surgical resection is no longer an option. Recent research has concluded that lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for specific high-risk groups may reduce lung cancer mortality. Public awareness and the need for current information are growing regarding the state of the science relative to lung cancer screening for individuals at high risk for lung cancer. This article provides a historical perspective on the topic of lung cancer screening. The risks and benefits of screening are discussed, and current clinical practice guidelines are reviewed. Oncology nurses will need to be cognizant of the risks, benefits, and current guidelines related to lung cancer screening as they support patients and their families making informed decisions about personal health care.