0

No votes yet

Journal Club

Osteoporosis Related to Disease or Therapy in Patients With Cancer

Rita Wickham
CJON 2011, 15(6), E90-E104 DOI: 10.1188/11.CJON.E90-E104

Osteoporosis is a major public health issue in the general population, particularly in postmenopausal women. Patients with cancer may not only be at risk for primary osteoporosis, but for secondary osteoporosis related to cancer therapies—particularly therapies that impair gonadal function, lead to loss of serum estrogen, and negatively affect bone turnover. Normal bone remodeling is influenced by the receptor activator for nuclear kappa-B ligand pathway, calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrition factors, as well as modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. Identifying which patients with cancer are at risk for bone mineral density loss is important and may include patients with breast or prostate cancer, some survivors of pediatric malignancies, and adults with other tumors. Nurses play a major role in identifying those patients and their risk for low-impact fractures, which can have a significant effect on patient morbidity and mortality. Counseling and teaching are central nursing functions, as well as safely administering therapies, particularly bisphosphonates and denosumab.

References 

Abed, E., & Moreau, R. (2009). Importance of melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 and magnesium in the stimulation of osteoblast proliferation and migration by platelet-derived growth factor. <i>American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 297</i>(2), C360-C368. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00614.2008

Agbaloo, T. L., Felsenfeld, A. L., & Tetradis, S. (2010). Osteonecrosis of the jaw in a patient on denosumab. <i>Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 68</i>, 959-962. doi:10.1016/j.jams.2009.10.010

Ajiro, Y., Tokuhashi, Y., Matsuzaki, H., Nakajima, S., & Ogawa, T. (2010). Impact of passive smoking on the bones of rats. <i>Orthopedics, 33</i>, 90-95. doi:10.3928/01477447-20100104-14

Aydın, H., Deyneli, O., Yavuz, D., Gözü, H., Mutlu, N., Kaygusuz, I., & Akalın, S. (2010). Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. <i>Biological Trace Element Research, 133</i>, 136-143. doi:10.1007/s12011-009-8416-8

Badamgarov, E., & Fitzpatrick, L. A. (2006). A new look at osteoporosis outcomes: The influence of treatment, compliance, persistence, and adherence. <i>Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 81</i>, 1009-1012. doi:10.4065/81.8.1009

Bergmann, P., Body, J. J., Boonen, S., Boutsen, Y., Devogelaer, J. P., Goemaere, J. P., … Gangji, V. (2009). Evidence-based guidelines for the use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the selection and monitoring of bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis: A consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club. <i>International Journal of Clinical Practice, 63</i>, 19-26. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01911.x

Berruti, A., Dogliatti, L., Terrone, C., Cerutti, S., Isaia, G., Tarabuzzi, R., … Angeli, A. (2002). Changes in bone mineral density, lean body mass and fat content as measured by x-ray absorptiometry in patients with prostate cancer without apparent bone metastases given androgen deprivation therapy. <i>Journal of Urology, 167</i>, 2361-2367.

Bertoldo, F., Pancheri, S., Zenari, S., Boldini, S., Giovanazzi, B., Zanatta, M., … Lo Cascio, V. (2010). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels modulate the acute-phase response associated with the first nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate infusion. <i>Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25</i>, 447-454. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090819

Bhoopalam, N., Campbell, S. C., Moritz, T., Broderick, W. R., Iyer, P., Arcenas, A. G., … Garewal, H. (2009). Intravenous zoledronic acid to prevent osteoporosis in a veteran population with multiple risk factors for bone loss on androgen deprivation therapy. <i>Journal of Urology, 182</i>, 2257-2264.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Staehelin, H. B., Orav, J. E., Stuck, A. E., Theiler, R., … Henschkowski, J. (2009). Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. <i>BMJ, 339</i>, 843-846. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3692

Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Kiel, D. P., Dawson-Hughes, B., Orav, J. E., Li, R., Spiegelman, D., … Willett, W. C. (2009). Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U. S. adults. <i>Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 24</i>, 935-942. doi:10.1359/JBMR.081242

Bjarnason, N. H., Hitz, M., Jorgensen, N. R., & Vestergaard, P. (2008). Adverse bone effects during pharmacological breast cancer therapy. <i>Acta Oncologica, 47</i>, 747-754. doi:10.1080/02841860802001467

Body, J. J., Bergmann, P., Boonen, S., Boutsen, Y., Devogelaer, J. P., Goemaere, S., … Kaufman, J. M. (2007). Management of treatment-induced bone loss in early breast and prostate cancer—A consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club. <i>Osteoporosis International, 18</i>, 1439-1450. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0439-4

Boonen, S., Vanderschueren, D., Venken, K., Milisen, K., Delforge, M., & Haentjens, P. (2009) <b>Recent developments in the manage</b>ment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with bisphosphonates: Enhanced efficacy by enhanced compliance. <i>Journal of Internal Medicine, 264</i>, 315-332. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2008.02010.x

Bordelon, P., Ghetu, M. V., & Langan, R. (2009). Recognition and management of vitamin D deficiency. <i>American Family Physician, 80</i>, 841-846.

Borovecki, F., Pecina-Slaus, N., & Vukicevek, S. (2007). Biological mechanisms of bone and cartilage remodeling—Genomic perspective. <i>International Orthopaedics, 31</i>, 799-805. doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0408-8

Brufsky, A., Bundred, N., Coleman, R., Lambert-Falls, R., Mena, R., … Perez, E. A. (2008). Integrated analysis of zoledronic acid for prevention of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole. <i>Oncologist, 13</i>, 503-514. doi:10.1634/theoncolo gist.2007-0206

Brufsky, A. M. (2008). Cancer treatment-induced bone loss: Pathophysiology and clinical perspectives. <i>Oncologist, 13</i>, 187-195. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2007-0152

Burkiewicz, J. S., Scarpace, S. L., & Bruce, S. P. (2009). Denosumab in osteoporosis and oncology. <i>Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 43</i>, 1445-1455. doi:10.1345/aph.1M102

Cabanillis, M. E., Lu, H., Fang, S., & Du, X. L. (2007). Elderly patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who receive chemotherapy are at higher risk for osteoporosis and fracture. <i>Leukemia and Lymphoma, 48</i>, 1524-1531.

Camacho, P. M., Dayal, A. S., Diaz, J. L., Nabhan, F. A., Agarwal, M., Norton, J. G., … Albain, K. S. (2008). Prevalence of secondary causes of bone loss among breast cancer patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 5380-5385. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.17.7451

Chennuru, S., Koduri, J., & Baumann, M. A. (2008). Risk factors for symptomatic hypocalcaemia complicating treatment with zoledronic acid. <i>Internal Medicine Journal, 38</i>, 635-637. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.2007.01580.x

Chestnut, C. H., III, Azria, M., Silverman, S., Engelhardt, M., Olson, M., & Mindeholm, L. (2008). Salmon calcitonin: A review of current and future therapeutic indications. <i>Osteoporosis International, 19</i>, 479-491. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0490-1

Cicognani, A., Pasini, A., Pession, A., Pirazzoli, P., Burnelli, R., Barbieri, E., … Cacciari, E. (2004). Gonadal function and pubertal development after treatment of a childhood malignancy. <i>Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology, 16</i>(Suppl. 2), 321-326.

Colemen, R. E. (2007). Emerging strategies in bone health management for the adjuvant patient. <i>Seminars in Oncology, 34</i>(Suppl. 4), S11-S16. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2007.10.003

Cosman, F. (2008). Parathyroid hormone treatment for osteoporosis. <i>Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 15</i>, 495-501. doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32831a46d6

Cummings, S. R., San Martin, J., McClung, M. R., Siris, E. S., Eastell, R., … Christiansen, C. (2009). Denosumab for prevention of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 361</i>, 756-765.

Daniell, H. W. (1997). Osteoporosis after orchiectomy for prostate cancer. <i>Journal of Urology, 157</i>, 439-444.

Dawson-Hughes, B., Toteson, A. N. A., Melton, L. J., Baim, S., Favus, M. J., Khosla, S., & Lindsay, R. L. (2008). Implications of absolute fracture risk for osteoporosis guidelines in the United States. <i>Osteoporosis International, 19</i>, 449-458. doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0559-5

Dickinson, M., Prince, H. M., Kirsa, S., Zannettino, A., Gibbs, S. D. J., Mileshkin, L., … Joshua, D. E. (2009). Osteonecrosis of the jaw complicating bisphosphonate treatment for bone disease in multiple myeloma: An overview with recommendations for prevention and treatment. <i>Internal Medicine Journal, 39</i>, 304-316.doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.2008.01824.x

Doggrell, S. A. (2008). Is long-term adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with anastrozole indicated? <i>Expert Opinions in Pharmacotherapy, 9</i>, 1619-1622. doi:10.1517/14656560802098378

Drake, M. T., Clarke, B. L., & Khosla, S. (2008). Bisphosphonates: Mechanisms of action and role in clinical practice. <i>Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83</i>, 1032-1045.

Eastell, R., Adams, J. E., Coleman, R. E., Howell, A., Hannon, R. A., Cuzick, J., … Clack, G. (2008). Effect of anastrozole on bone mineral density: Five-year results from the anastrozole, tamoxifen, alone or in combination trial 18233230. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 1051-1058. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.11.0726

Ellis, G. K., Bone, H. G., Chlebowski, R., Paul, D., Spadafora, S., Smith, J., … Jun, S. (2008). Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for nonmetastatic breast cancer. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 4875-4882. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.16.3832

Everett, P. C. (2008). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a hematology-oncology clinic. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12</i>, 33-35. doi:10.1188/08.CJON.33-35

Fehm, T., Felsenberg, D., Krimmel, M., Solomayer, E., Wallwiener, D., & Hadjii, P. (2009). Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw in breast cancer patients: Recommendations for prevention and treatment. <i>Breast, 18</i>, 213-217.

Fizazi, K., Carducci, M., Smith, M., Damido, R., Brown, J., Karsh, L., … Goessl, C. (2011). Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: A randomised, double-blind study. <i>Lancet, 377</i>, 813-822. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62344-6

Fornier, M. N., Modi, S., Panageas, K. S., Norton, L., & Hudis, C. (2005). Incidence of long-term, chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in patients with breast cancer age 40 years and younger after adjuvant anthracycline and taxane. <i>Cancer, 104</i>, 1575-1579. doi:10.1002/cncr.21385

Fosnight, S. M., Zafirau, W. J., & Hazelett, S. E. (2008). Vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in the elderly: Evidence and practical considerations. <i>Pharmacotherapy, 28</i>, 225-234. doi:10.1592/phco.28.2.225

Gnant, M., Mlineritsch, B., Schippinger, W., Luschin-Ebengreuth, G., Pöstlberger, S., Menzel, C., … Greil, R. (2009). Endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal breast cancer. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 360</i>, 679-691. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806285

Gralow, J. R., Biermann, J. S., Farooki, A., Fornier, M. N., Gagel, R. F., Kumar, R. N., … Van Poznak, C. H. (2009). NCCN task force report: Bone health in cancer care. <i>Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 7</i>(Suppl. 3), S1-S32.

Green, J., & Clézardin, P. (2010). The molecular basis of bisphosphonate activity: A preclinical perspective. <i>Seminars in Oncology, 37</i>(Suppl. 1), S3-S11. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2010.06.003

Griffith, J. F., & Genant, H. K. (2008). Bone mass and architecture determination: State of the art. <i>Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 22</i>, 737-764. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2008.07.003

Guise, T. A. (2006). Bone loss and fracture risk associated with cancer therapy. <i>Oncologist, 11</i>, 1121-1131. doi:10.1634/theonc ologist.11-10-1121

Harper, K. D., Krege, J. H., Marcus, R., & Mitlak, B. H. (2007). Osteosarcoma and teriparatide? <i>Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 22</i>, 334. doi:10.1359/jbmr.061111

Haukvik, U. K. H., Dieset, I., Bjøro, T., Holte, H., & Fossa, S. D. (2006). Treatment-related premature ovarian failure as a long-term complication after Hodgkin's lymphoma. <i>Annals of Oncology, 17</i>, 1426-1433. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl149

Heaney, R. (2007). Vitamin D endocrine physiology. <i>Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 22</i>(Suppl. 2), V25-V27. doi:10.1359/jbmr.07s205/pdf

Henry, D. H., Costa, L., Goldwasser, F., Hirsh, V., Hungria, V., Prausova, J., … Yeh, H. (2011). Randomized, double-blind study of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced cancer (excluding breast and prostate cancer) or multiple myeloma. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/early/2011/02/16/JCO.2010.31.3304.abstra...

Hillner, B. E., Ingle, J. N., Chlebowski, R. T., Gralow, J., Yee, G. C., Janjan, N. A., … Brown, S. (2003). American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003 update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21</i>, 4042-4057. doi:10.1200/JCO.2003.08.017

Hirbe, A., Morgan, E. A., Uluckan, O., & Weilbaecher, K. (2006). Skeletal complications of breast cancer therapies. <i>Clinical Cancer Research, 12</i>(Suppl. 20), 6309s-6314s.

Holick, M. F., & Chen, T. C. (2008). Vitamin D deficiency: A worldwide problem with health consequences. <i>American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87</i>(Suppl.), 1080S-1086S.

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. (2008). <i>ICSI health care guideline: Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis</i> (6th ed.). Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.icsi.org/osteoporosis/diagnosis_and_treatment_of_osteoporosis...

Institute of Medicine. (2011). <i>Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D</i>. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Joint Commission. (2009). <i>Improving and measuring osteoporosis management</i>. Oak Brook Terrace, IL: Author.

Jonat, W., Kaufmann, M., Sauerbrei, W., Blamey, R., Cuzick, J., Namer, M., … Lisboa, B. (2002). Goserelin versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluouracil as adjuvant therapy in node-positive breast cancer: The Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association Study. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20</i>, 4628-4635.

Kanis, J. A., Oden, A., Johansson, H., Borgström, F., Ström, O., & McCloskey, E. (2009). FRAX® and its applications to clinical practice. <i>Bone, 44</i>, 734-743. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2009.01.373

Kazakia, G. J., & Majumdar, S. (2006). New imaging technologies in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. <i>Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 7</i>, 67-74. doi:10.1007/s11154-006-9004-2

Khan, A. A., Hodsman, A. B., Papaioannou, A., Kendler, D., Brown, J. P., & Olszynski, W. P. (2007). Management of osteoporosis in men: An update and case example. <i>Canadian Medical Association Journal, 176</i>, 345-348. doi:10.1503/cmaj.050816

Khokhar, J. S., Brett, A. S., & Desai, A. (2009). Vitamin D deficiency masquerading as metastatic cancer: A case series. <i>American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 337</i>, 245-247. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3181898525

Khosla, S., Amin, S., & Orwoll, E. (2008). Osteoporosis in men. <i>Endocrine Reviews, 29</i>, 441-464. doi:10.1210/er.2008-0002

Khosla, S., & Melton, L. J. (2007). Osteopenia. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 356</i>, 2293-2300. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp070341

Lenart, B. A., Neviaser, A. S., Lyman, S., Chang, C. C., Edobor-Osula, F., Steele, B., … Lane, J. M. (2009). Association of low-energy femoral fractures with prolonged bisphosphonate use. <i>Osteoporosis International, 20</i>, 1353-1362. doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0805-x

Li, Z., Kong, K., & Qi, W. (2006). Osteoclast and its role in calcium metabolism and bone development and remodeling. <i>Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 343</i>, 345-350. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.02.147

MacLean, C., Newberry, S., Maglione, M., McMahon, M., Ranganath, V., Suttorp, M., … Grossman, J. (2008). Systematic review: Comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis. <i>Annals of Internal Medicine, 148</i>, 197-213. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-150-6-200903170-00015

Matsuo, K., & Irie, N. (2008). Osteoclast-osteoblast communication. <i>Archives in Biochemistry and Biophysics, 473</i>, 201-209. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2008.03.027

McKean, H., Looker, S., Hartmann, L. C., Hayman, S. R., Kaur, J. S., McWilliams, R. R., … Jatoi, A. (2008). Are cancer survivors/patients knowledgeable about osteoporosis? Results from a survey of 285 chemotherapy-treated cancer patients and their companions. <i>Journal of Nutrition, Education, and Behavior, 40</i>, 144-148. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2007.08.009

Michaud, L. B. (2010). Managing cancer treatment-induced bone loss and osteoporosis in patients with breast or prostate cancer. <i>American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 67</i>(Suppl. 3), 520-530. doi:10.2146/ajhp100078

Michaud, L. B., & Goodin, S. (2006). Cancer-treatment-induced bone loss, part 1. <i>American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 63</i>, 419-430. doi:10.2146/ajhp050045.p1

Mittan, D., Lee, S., Miller, E., Perez, R. C., Basler, J. W., & Bruder, J. M. (2002). Bone loss following hypogonadism in men with prostate cancer treated with GnRH analogs. <i>Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87</i>, 3656-3661. doi:10.1210/jc.87.8.3656

Morote, J., Morin, J. P., Orsola, A., Abascal, J. M., Salvadore, C., Trilla, E., … Reventos, J. (2007). Prevalence of osteoporosis during long-term androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. <i>Urology, 69</i>, 500-504. doi:10.196/j.urology.2006.11.002

Murthy, R. K., Morrow, P. K., & Theriault, R. L. (2010). Bone biology and the role of the RANK ligand pathway. <i>Oncology, 23</i>(14, Suppl.), 9-15.

Naik, N. H., & Russo, T. A. (2009). Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: The role of actinomyces. <i>Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49</i>, 1729-1732. doi:10.1086/648075

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. (2011). <i>NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Prostate cancer</i> [v.1.2011]. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp'>http:/...

National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2010). <i>Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis</i>. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.nof.org/professionals/clinical-guidelines'>http://www.nof.org...

North American Menopause Society. (2006). Position statement. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. <i>Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 13</i>, 340-367. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181c617e6

Oktay, K., & Sonmezer, M. (2008). Chemotherapy and amenorrhea: Risks and treatment options. <i>Current Opinions in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 20</i>, 408-415. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e328307ebad

Palacios, C. (2006). The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to <i>Z. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46</i>, 621-628. doi:10.1080/10408390500466174

Panju, A. H., Breunis, H., Cheung, A. M., Leach, M., Fleshner, N., Warde, P., … Alibhai, S. M. H. (2008). Management of decreased bone mineral density in men starting androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. <i>BJU International, 103</i>, 753-757. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08156.x

Park-Wyllie, L. Y., Mamdani, M. M., Juurlink, D. N., Hawker, G. A., Gunraj, N., Austin, P. C., … Laupacis, A. (2011). Bisphosphonate use and the risk of subtrochanteric or femoral shaft fractures in older women. <i>JAMA, 305</i>, 783-789. doi:10.1234/12345678

Perez, E. A., & Weilbaecher, K. (2006). Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss. <i>Oncology, 20</i>, 1029-1039.

Pfeilschifter, J., & Diel, I. J. (2000). Osteoporosis due to cancer treatment: Pathogenesis and management. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18</i>, 1570-1593.

Puhaindran, M. E., Farooki, A., Steensma, M. R., Hameed, M., Healey, J. H., & Boland, P. J. (2011). Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures in patients with skeletal malignant involvement treated with intravenous bisphosphonates. <i>Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 93</i>, 1235-1242. doi:10.2106/JBJS. J.01199

Raisz, L. G. (2005). Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: Concepts, conflicts, and prospects. <i>Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115</i>, 3318-3325. doi:10.1172/JCI27071

Roelofs, A. J., Thompson, K., Gordon, S., & Rogers, M. J. (2006). Molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates: Current status. <i>Clinical Cancer Research, 12</i>(Suppl. 20), 6222s-6230s. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0843

Rossouw, J. E., Anderson, G. L., Prentice, R. L., LaCroix, A. Z., Stefanick, M. L., Jackson, R. D., … Ockene, J. (2002). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. <i>JAMA, 288</i>, 321-333.

Rude, R. K., Singer, F. R., & Gruber, H. E. (2009). Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. <i>Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28</i>, 131-141.

Ryder, K. M., Shorr, R. I., Bush, A. J., Kritchevsky, S. B., Harris, T., Stone, K., … Tylavsky, F. A. (2006). Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. <i>Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53</i>, 1875-1880. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53561.x

Saad, F., Adachi, J. D., Brown, J. P., Canning, L. A., Gelmon, K. A., Jossee, R. G., & Pritchard, K. I. (2008). Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in breast and prostate cancer. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 5465-5476. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.4184

Sahota, O., Mundey, M. K., San, P., Godber, I. M., & Hosking, D. J. (2006). Vitamin D insufficiency and the blunted PTH response in established osteoporosis: The role of magnesium deficiency. <i>Osteoporosis International, 17</i>, 1013-1021. doi:10.1007/s00198-006-0084-3

Sala, A., & Barr, R. D. (2007). Osteopenia and cancer in children and adolescents. The fragility of success. <i>Cancer, 109</i>, 1420-1431. doi:10.1002/cncr.22546

Sambrook, P., & Cooper, C. (2006). Osteoporosis. <i>Lancet, 367</i>, 2010-2018. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68891-0

Schilcher, J., & Aspenberg, P. (2009). Incidence of stress fractures of the femoral shaft in women treated with bisphosphonate. <i>Acta Orthopaedica, 80</i>, 413-415. doi:10.3109/17453670903139914

Schulte, C. M. S., & Beelen, D. W. (2004). Bone loss following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A long-term follow-up. <i>Blood, 10</i>, 3635-3643. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-09-3081

Seeman, E., & Delmas, P. D. (2006). Bone quality—The material and structural basis of bone strength and fragility. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 354</i>, 2240-2261. doi:10.1056/NEJMra053077

Shane, E., Burr, D., Ebeling, P. R., Abrahamsen, B., Alder, R. A., Brown, T. D., … Whyte, M. (2010). Atypical subtrochanteric and diapheseal femoral fractures: Report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. <i>Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25</i>, 2267-2294. doi:10.1002/jbmr.253

Shuler, F. D., Conjeski, J. M., & Hamilton, R. L. (2011). Incorporating the WHO FRAX assessment tool into nursing practice. <i>American Journal of Nursing, 111</i>(8), 59-62.

Siebler, T., Shala, S. M., & Robson, H. (2002). Effects of chemotherapy on bone metabolism and skeletal growth. <i>Hormone Research in Pediatrics, 58</i>(Suppl. 1), 80-85.

Siris, E. S., Chen, Y. T., Abbott, T. A., Barrett-Connor, E., Miller, P. D., & Berger, M. L. (2004). Bone mineral density thresholds for pharmacological intervention to prevent fracture. <i>Archives of Internal Medicine, 164</i>, 1108-1112.

Sklar, C. A., Mertens, A. C., Mitby, P., Whitton, J., Stovall, M., Kasper, C., … Robison, L. L. (2006). Premature menopause in survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the childhood cancer survivor study. <i>Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 98</i>, 890-896. doi:10.1093/jnci/djj243

Smith, M.R, Egerdie, B., Hernandez Toriz, N., Feldman, R., Tammela, T. L., Saad, F., … Goessl, C. (2009). Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 361</i>, 745-755. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0809003

Solomon, D. H., Rekadal, L., & Cadarette, A. M. (2009). Osteoporosis treatments and adverse events. <i>Current Opinions in Rheumatology, 21</i>, 363-368

Srinivas, S., & Colocci, N. (2006). Bone related events in high risk prostate cancer. <i>Journal of Urology, 176</i>(6, Pt. 2), S50-S54.

Stechschulte, S. A., Kirsner, R. S., & Federman, D. G. (2009). Vitamin D: Bone and beyond, rationale and recommendations for supplementation. <i>American Journal of Medicine, 122</i>, 793-802. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.02.029

Sterns, V., Schneider, B., Henry, N. L., Hayes, D. F., & Flockhart, D. A. (2006). Breast cancer treatment and ovarian failure: Risk factors and emerging genetic determinants. <i>Nature Reviews. Cancer, 6</i>, 886-893. doi:10.1038/nrc1992

Stopeck, A. T., Lipton, A., Body, J. J., Steger, G. G., Tonkin, K., de Boer, R. H., … Braun, A. (2010). Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: A randomized, double-blind study. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35</i>, 5132-5139. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.29.7101

Swaminathan, R. (2009). Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. <i>Clinical Biochemistry Reviews, 24</i>, 47-66.

Sweet, M. G., Sweet, J. M., Jeremiah, M. P., & Galazka, S. S. (2009). Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. <i>American Family Physician, 79</i>, 193-200.

Swenson, K. K., Nissen, M. J., Anderson, E., Shapiro, A., Schousboe, J., & Leach, J. (2009). Effects of exercise versus bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. <i>Journal of Supportive Oncology, 7</i>, 101-107.

Szule, P., Kaufman, J. M., & Delmas, P. D. (2007). Biochemical assessment of bone turnover and bone fragility in men. <i>Osteoporosis International, 18</i>, 1451-1461. doi:10.1007/s00198-007-0407-z

Tanaka, T., Utsunomiya, T., Utsunomiya, H., & Umesaki, N. (2008). Irinotecan HCl, an anticancer topoisomerase I inhibitor, frequently induces ovarian failure in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. <i>Oncology Reports, 19</i>, 1123-1133.

Tanvetyanon, T. (2005). Physician practices of bone density testing and drug prescribing to prevent or treat osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy. <i>Cancer, 103</i>, 237-241. doi:10.1002/cncr.20766

Tanvetyanon, T., & Stiff, P. J. (2006). Management of the adverse effects associated with intravenous bisphosphonates. <i>Annals of Oncology, 17</i>, 897-907. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj105

Teinturier, C., Hartmann, O., Valteau-Counet, D., Benhamou, E., & Bougneres, P. F. (1998). Ovarian function after autologous bone marrow transplantation in childhood: High-dose busulfan is a cause of ovarian failure. <i>Bone Marrow Transplantation, 22</i>, 989-994.

Tham, Y. L., Sexton, K., Weiss, H., Elledge, R., Friedman, L. C., & Kramer, R. (2007). The rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by a taxane. <i>American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30</i>, 126-132. doi:10.1097/01.coc.0000251398.57630.4f

Tosteson, A. N. A., Melton, L. J., III, Dawson-Hughes, B., Baim, S., Favus, J., Khosla, S., … Lindsay, R. L. (2008). Cost-effective osteoporosis treatment thresholds: the United States perspective. <i>Osteoporosis International, 19</i>, 437-447.

Tucker, K. L. (2009). Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition. <i>Current Osteoporosis Reports, 7</i>, 111-117.

Vahle, J. L., Long, G. G., Sandusky, G., Westmore, M., Ma, Y. L., & Sato, M. (2004). Bone neoplasms in F344 rats given teriparatide [rhPTH(1-34)] are dependent on duration of treatment and dose. <i>Toxicologic Pathology, 32</i>, 426-438.

Vahtsevanos, K., Kyrgidis, A., Verrou, E., Katodritou, E., Triaridis, S., Andreadis, C. G., … Antoniades, K. (2009). Longitudinal cohort study of risk factors in cancer patients of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27</i>, 5356-5362. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.21.9584

van der Sluis, I. M., & van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M. (2008). Osteoporosis in children with cancer. <i>Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 50</i>, 474-478. doi:10.1002/pbc.21407

Van Poznak, C. H., Temin, S., Yee, G. C., Janjan, N. A., Barlow, W. E., Biermann, J. S., … Von Roenn, J. H. (2011). American Society of Clinical Oncology executive summary of the clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in metastatic breast cancer. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29</i>, 1221-1227. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.32.5209

Vashi, P. G., Trukova, K., Lammersfeld, C. A., Braun, D. P., & Gupta, D. (2010). Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in oncology. <i>Nutrition Journal, 9</i>, 60-68. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-60

Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R., Brosnan, P., Delpassand, A., Zietz, H., Klein, M. J., & Jaffe, N. (1999). Osteopenia in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. <i>Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 32</i>, 272-279.

Visekruna, M., Wilson, D., & McKiernan, F. E. (2008). Severely suppressed bone turnover and atypical skeletal fragility. <i>Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93</i>, 2948-2952. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2803

Vondracek, S. F. (2010). Managing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. <i>American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 67</i>(Suppl. 3), S9-S19. doi:10.2146/ajhp100076

Wang-Gillam, A., Miles, D. A., & Hutchins, L. F. (2008). Evaluation of vitamin D deficiency in breast cancer patients on bisphosphonates. <i>Oncologist, 13</i>, 821-827. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2008-0013

Woodis, C. B. (2008). Once-yearly administered intravenous zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. <i>Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 42</i>, 1085-1089. doi:10.1345/aph.1K652

Wysowski, D. K. (2009). Reports of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonate use. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 360</i>, 89-90. doi:10.1056/NEJMc0808738

Yamamoto, D. S., & Viale, P. H. (2009). Update on identifying and managing osteoporosis in women with breast cancer [Online exclusive]. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13</i>, E18-E29. doi:10.1188/09.CJON.E18-E29

Zallone, A. (2006). Direct and indirect estrogen actions on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. <i>Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1068</i>, 173-179. doi:10.1196/annals.1346.019

Zarowitz, B. J. (2008). The value of vitamin D3 over vitamin D2 in older persons. <i>Geriatric Nursing, 29</i>, 89-91.

Zuradelli, M., Masci, G., Biancofiore, G., Gullo, G., Scorsetti, M., Navarria, P., … Santoro, A. (2009). High incidence of hypocalcemia and serum creatinine increase in patients with bone metastases treated with zoledronic acid. <i>Oncologist, 14</i>, 548-556. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2008-0227