No votes yet

Barriers for Hispanic Women in Receiving the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

Janelle Wagner
CJON 2009, 13(6), 671-675 DOI: 10.1188/09.CJON.671-675

Cervical cancer affects more Hispanic women than non-Hispanic women in the United States. A vaccination exists to aid in the prevention of cervical cancer; an estimated 70% of cases could be avoided with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, women of Hispanic descent have many access barriers. By identifying and addressing such barriers, nurses can play a significant role in educating Hispanic women about the benefits of vaccination before HPV exposure occurs. Theoretical integration with Leininger's Culture Care Theory of Diversity and Universality provides a framework to address cultural differences and awareness when educating Hispanic women about this health issue. Additional nursing research into effective communication and educational programs to help reach the Hispanic population continues to be a priority in this vulnerable community.


Adam, M.B., McGuire, J.K., Walsh, M., Basta, J., & LeCroy, C. (2005). Acculturation as a predictor of the onset of sexual intercourse among Hispanic and white teens. <i>Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine</i>, 159(3), 261-265.

American Cancer Society. (2009). <i>Cancer facts and figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2009-2011.</i> Retrieved November 9, 2009, from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/F862309_final%20reduced.pdf'>http://...

Brewer, N.T., & Fazekas, K.I. (2007). Predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability: A theory-informed, systematic review. <i>Preventive Medicine</i>, 45(2-3), 107-114.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009a). Adolescent reproductive health: Success stories. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/adolescentreprohealth/LongDescript...

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009b). HIV/AIDS among Hispanics/Latinos: Prevention challenges. Retrieved February 2, 2009, from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/Hispanics/challenges.htm'>http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/...

Constantine, N.A., & Jerman, P., (2007). Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among Californian parents of daughters: A representative statewide analysis. <i>Journal of Adolescent Health</i>, 40(2), 108-115.

Doswell, W.M., & Braxter, B. (2002). Risk-taking behaviors in early adolescent minority women: Implications for research and practice. <i>Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing</i>, 31(4), 454-461.

Farrell, R.M., & Rome, E.S. (2007). Adolescents' access and consent to the human papillomavirus vaccine: A critical aspect for immunization success [Commentary]. <i>Pediatrics</i>, 120(2), 434-437.

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). HPV vaccine: Implementation and financing policy. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/7602.cfm'>http://www.kff.org/womenshealt...

Kaplan, C.P., Erickson, P.I., & Juarez-Reyes, M. (2002). Acculturation, gender role orientation, and reproductive risk-taking behavior among Latina adolescent family planning clients. <i>Journal of Adolescent Research</i>, 17(2), 103-121.

Martinez, I.L., & Carter-Pokras, O. (2006). Assessing health concerns and barriers in a heterogeneous Latino community. <i>Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved</i>, 17(4), 899-909.

McFarland, M. (2006). Madeleine Leininger: Culture Care Theory of Diversity and Universality. In A.M. Tomey & M.R. Alligood (Eds.), <i>Nursing theorists and their work</i> (6th ed., pp. 472-496). St. Louis: Mosby.

McKee, D., & Fletcher, J. (2006). Primary care for urban adolescent girls from ethnically diverse populations: Foregone care and access to confidential care. <i>Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved</i>, 17(4), 759-774.

McKee, M.D., O'Sullivan, L.F., & Weber, C.M. (2006). Perspectives on confidential care for adolescent girls. <i>Annals of Family Medicine</i>, 4(6), 519-526.

Rand, C.M., Szilagyi, P.G., Albertin, C., & Auinger, P. (2007). Additional health care visits needed among adolescents for human papillomavirus vaccine delivery within medical homes: A national study. <i>Pediatrics</i>, 120(3), 461-466.

Rios, J., & Torres, J.F. (2001). <i>Medical Spanish: The practical Spanish program for medical professionals.</i> New York: McGraw-Hill.

Saslow, D., Castle, P., Cox, T., Davey, D., Einstein, M., Ferris, D., et al. (2007). American Cancer Society guideline for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Retrieved November 24, 2007, from <a target="_blank" href='http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/57/1/7'>http://caonline...

Shah, M., Zhu, K., Wu, H. & Potter, J. (2006). Hispanic acculturation and utilization of cervical cancer screening in the US. <i>Preventive Medicine</i>, 42(2), 146-149.

Tiro, J.A., Meissner, H.I., Kobrin, S., & Chollette, V. (2007). What do women in the U.S. know about human papillomavirus and cervical cancer? <i>Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention</i>, 16(2), 288-294.

Vanslyke, J.G., Baum, J., Plaza, V., Otero, M., Wheeler, C., & Helitzer, D.L. (2008). HPV and cervical cancer testing and prevention: Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes among Hispanic women. <i>Qualitative Health Research</i>, 18(5), 584-596.

Wu, T., Mendola, P., & Buck, G.M. (2002). Ethnic differences in the presence of secondary sex characteristics and menarche among US girls: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. <i>Pediatrics</i>, 110(4), 752-757.

Yang, S., Zarr, R.L., Kass-Hout, T.A., Kourosh, A., & Kelly, N.R. (2006). Transportation barriers to accessing health care for urban children. <i>Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved</i>, 17(4), 928-943.