Myelosuppression, the reduction of platelets and red and white blood cells, is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. Filgrastim and pegfilgrastim are used to assist recovery in patients with low white blood cell counts. This article explores the dosing, efficacy, cost, and clinical considerations of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim in neutropenia care. Increased knowledge of the medications may contribute to positive patient outcomes. As the price of hospitalization increases, prophylactic dosing of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim becomes more cost effective. In addition, clinical outcomes are improved through a reduction in length of hospital stays and the need for IV antibiotic administration.