Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, representing more than 80% of lung cancer diagnoses. Five-year survival remains at 15%, but new strategies for prevention, early detection, and treatment may improve survival rates. This article provides an overview of updates in NSCLC, with an emphasis on advances in treatment strategies. Newer targeted therapies, as well as advances in genetic blueprinting, will be discussed. Nurses play a pivotal role in the assessment and management of patients with NSCLC and, therefore, must remain abreast of the most current prevention, screening, and treatment options.