Current Methods for the Assessment and Management of Taxane-Related Neuropathy

Ellen M.L. Smith

breast cancer, neuropathic pain, intervention, literature review
CJON 2013, 17(1), 22-34. DOI: 10.1188/13.CJON.S1.22-34

Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy (TIPN) affects a number of patients with breast cancer. To properly manage these patients, nurses must be able to identify and assess TIPN, as well as educate patients on TIPN as a side effect of taxane therapy. This article provides practical suggestions regarding how nurses can incorporate clinically feasible measurement approaches into practice and includes examples of grading TIPN that illustrate the limitations of the current tools and techniques for assessment. For example, a shortened and revised version of the Total Neuropathy Score and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity subscale should be considered for future use. In addition, neuropathy-related results from numerous phase III trials in breast cancer are discussed, and the latest evidence regarding pharmacologic interventions for TIPN is briefly summarized.

Jump to a section


    Albain, K.S., Nag, S.M., Calderillo-Ruiz, G., Jordaan, J.P., Llombart, A.C., Pluzanska, A., … O'Shaughnessy, J. (2008). Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 3950-3957.
    Almadrones, L., McGuire, D.B., Walczak, J.R., Florio, C.M., & Tian, C. (2004). Psychometric evaluation of two scales assessing functional status and peripheral neuropathy associated with chemotherapy for ovarian cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 31, 615-623.
    Andersson, M., Lidbrink, E., Bjerre, K., Wist, E., Enevoldsen, K., Jensen, A.B., … Langkjer, S.T. (2011). Phase III randomized study comparing docetaxel plus trastuzumab with vinorelbine plus trastuzumab as first-line therapy of metastatic or locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 264-271.
    Argyriou, A.A., Koltzenburg, M., Polychronopoulos, P., Papapetropoulos, S., & Kalofonos, H.P. (2008). Peripheral nerve damage associated with administration of taxanes in patients with cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncology-Hematology, 66, 218-228.
    Atkinson, T.M., Li, Y., Coffey, C.W., Sit, L., Shaw, M., Lavene, D., … Basch, E. (2011). Reliability of adverse symptom event reporting by clinicians. Quality of Life Research, 21, 1159-1164.
    Authier, N., Gillet, J.P., Fialip, J., Eschalier, A., & Coudore, F. (2000). Description of a short-term Taxol-induced nociceptive neuropathy in rats. Brain Research, 887, 239-249.
    Barton, D.L., Wos, E.J., Qin, R., Mattar, B.I., Green, N.B., Lanier, K.S., … Loprinzi, C.L. (2011). A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA. Supportive Care in Cancer, 19, 833-841. doi:10.1007/s00520-010-0911-0
    Basch, E., Jia, X., Heller, G., Barz, A., Sit, L., Fruscione, M., … Schrag, D. (2009). Adverse symptom event reporting by patients vs clinicians: Relationships with clinical outcomes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101, 1624-1632.
    Bergmann, T.K., Gréen, H., Brasch-Andersen, C., Mirza, M.R., Herrstedt, J., Hølund, B., … Peterson, C. (2011). Retrospective study of the impact of pharmacogenetic variants on paclitaxel toxicity and survival in patients with ovarian cancer. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 67, 693-700.
    Calhoun, E.A., Welshman, E.E., Chang, C.H., Lurain, J.R., Fishman, D.A., Hunt, T.L., & Cella, D. (2003). Psychometric evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity (FACT/GOG-Ntx) questionnaire for patients receiving systemic chemotherapy. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 13, 741-748.
    Carlson, K., & Ocean, A.J. (2011). Peripheral neuropathy with microtubule-targeting agents: Occurrence and management approach. Clinical Breast Cancer, 11, 73-81. doi:10.1016/j.clbc.2011.03.006
    Cassier, P.A., Chabaud, S., Trillet-Lenoir, V., Peaud, P.Y., Tigaud, J.D., Cure, H., … Bachelot, T. (2008). A phase-III trial of doxorubicin and docetaxel versus doxorubicin and paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer: Results of the ERASME 3 study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 109, 343-350. doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9651-3
    Cavaletti, G., Frigeni, B., Lanzani, F., Mattavelli, L., Susani, E., Alberti, P., … Bidoli, P. (2010). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity assessment: A critical revision of the currently available tools. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 479-494.
    Cavaletti, G., Jann, S., Pace, A., Plasmati, R., Siciliano, G., Briani, C., … Italian NETox Group. (2006). Multicenter assessment of the total neuropathy score for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity. Journal of Peripheral Nervous System, 11, 135-141. doi:10.1111/j.1085-9489.2006.00078.x
    Chaudhry, V., Rowinsky, E.K., Sartorius, S.E., Donehower, R.C., & Cornblath, D.R. (1994). Peripheral neuropathy from Taxol and cisplatin combination chemotherapy: Clinical and electrophysiological studies. Annals of Neurology, 35, 304-311.
    Cornblath, D.R., Chaudhry, V., Carter, K., Lee, D., Seysedadr, M., Miernicki, M., & Joh, T. (1999). Total neuropathy score: Validation and reliability study. Neurology, 53, 1660-1664.
    Eiermann, W., Pienkowski, T., Crown, J., Sadeghi, S., Martin, M., Chan, A., … Mackey, J.R. (2011). Phase III study of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide with concomitant versus sequential docetaxel as adjuvant treatment in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-normal, node-positive breast cancer: BCIRG-005 trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 3877-3884.
    Flatters, S.J.L., & Bennett, G. (2006). Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. Pain, 122, 245-257.
    Fountzilas, G., Dafni, U., Dimopoulos, M.A., Koutras, A., Skarlos, D., Papakostas, P., … Kalofonos, H.P. (2009). A randomized phase III study comparing three anthracycline-free taxane-based regimens, as first line chemotherapy, in metastatic breast cancer: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 115, 87-99. doi:10.1007/s10549-008-0047-9
    Frasci, G., D'Aiuto, G., Comella, P., Thomas, R., Botti, G., Di Bonito, M., … Southern Italy Cooperative Oncology Group (SICOG). (2006). Weekly cisplatin, epirubicin, and paclitaxel with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support versus tri-weekly epirubicin and paclitaxel in locally advanced breast cancer: Final analysis of a SICOG phase III study. British Journal of Cancer, 95, 1005-1012. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603395
    Goldberg, R.M., Sargent, D.J., Morton, R.F., Fuchs, C.S., Ramanathan, R.K., Williamson, S.K., … Alberts, S.R. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of fluorouracil plus leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin combinations in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 23-30. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.09.046
    Gradishar, W.J., Tjulandin, S., Davidson, N., Shaw, H., Desai, N., Bhar, P., … O'Shaughnessy, J. (2005). Phase III trial of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel compared with polyethylated castor oil-based paclitaxel in women with breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 7794-7803. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.04.937
    Griffith, K.A., Merkies, I.S.J., Hill, E.E., & Cornblath, D.R. (2010). Measures of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Peripheral Nervous System, 15, 314-325.
    Hamberg, P., Bos, M.M., Braun, H.J., Stouthard, J.M., van Deijk, G.A., Erdkamp, F.L., … Dutch Breast Cancer Trialists' Group. (2011). Randomized phase II study comparing efficacy and safety of combination-therapy trastuzumab and docetaxel vs. sequential therapy of trastuzumab followed by docetaxel alone at progression as first-line chemotherapy in patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Clinical Breast Cancer, 11, 103-113.
    Hausheer, F.H., Schilsky, R.L., Bain, S., Berghorn, E.J., & Lieberman, F. (2006). Diagnosis, management, and evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Seminars in Oncology, 33, 15-49. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2005.12.010
    Hershman, D.L., Unger, J.M., Crew, K.D., Moinpour, C., Minasian, L.M., Hansen, L., … Albain, K.S. (2012). SWOG S0715: Randomized placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-l-carnitine for the prevention of taxane-induced neuropathy during adjuvant breast cancer therapy [Abstract 9018]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from… ID=95515
    Hertz, D.L., Dees, E.C., Motsinger-Reif, A.A., Drobish, A., Roy, S., McLeod, H.L., & Carey, L.A. (2012). Interrogation of polymorphisms in drug metabolism or transport genes and peripheral neuropathy during paclitaxel treatment [Abstract 10515]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from…
    Huang, H.Q., Brady, M.F., Cella, D., & Fleming, G. (2007). Validation and reduction of FACT/GOG-Ntx subscale for platinum/paclitaxel-induced neurologic symptoms: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 17, 387-393.
    Kautio, A.L., Haanpää, M., Leminen, A., Kalso, E., Kautiainen, H., & Saarto, T. (2009). Amitriptyline in the prevention of chemo-induced neuropathic symptoms. Anticancer Research, 29, 2601-2606.
    Kroetz, D.L., Baldwin, R.M., Owzar, K., Jiang, C., Zembutsu, H., Kubo, M., … Ratain, M.J. (2010). Inherited genetic variation in EPHA5, FGD4, and NRDG1 and paclitaxel (P)-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN): Results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in CALGB 40101 [Abstract 3021]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from…
    Kuroi, K., & Shimozuma, K. (2004). Neurotoxicity of taxanes: Symptoms and quality of life assessment. Breast Cancer, 11, 92-99. doi:10.1007/BF02968010
    Kuroi, K., Shimozuma, K., Ohashi, Y., Hisamatsu, K., Masuda, N., Takeuchi, A., … Hausheer, F.H. (2009). Prospective assessment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy due to weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer (CSP-HOR 02 study). Supportive Care in Cancer, 17, 1071-1080.
    Lavoie Smith, E.M., Bakitas, M.A., Homel, P., Fadul, C., Meyer, L., Skalla, K., & Bookbinder, M. (2009). Using quality improvement methodology to improve neuropathic pain screening and assessment in patients with cancer. Journal of Cancer Education, 24, 135-140.
    Lavoie Smith, E.M., Cohen, J.A., Pett, M.A., & Beck, S.L. (2011). The validity of neuropathy and neuropathic pain measures in patients with cancer receiving taxanes and platinums. Oncology Nursing Forum, 38, 133-142. doi:10.1188/11.ONF.133-142
    Loesch, D., Greco, F.A., Senzer, N.N., Burris, H.A., Hainsworth, J.D., Jones, S., … Robert, N. (2010). Phase III multicenter trial of doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel compared with doxorubicin plus paclitaxel followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for women with high-risk breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 2958-2965.
    Loprinzi, C.L., Reeves, B.N., Dakhil, S.R., Sloan, J.A., Wolf, S.L., Burger, K.N., … Lachance, D.H. (2011). Natural history of paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome: Prospective cohort study NCCTG N08C1. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 1472-1478.
    Miles, D.W., Chan, A., Dirix, L.Y., Cortes, J., Pivot, X., Tomczak, P., … Romieu, G. (2010). Phase III study of bevacizumab plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel for the first-line treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 3239-3247.
    Miller, K., Wang, M., Gralow, J., Dickler, M., Cobleigh, M., Perez, E.A., … Davidson, N.E. (2007). Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2666-2676. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa072113
    Morton, R.F., Sloan, J.A., Grothey, A., Sargent, D.J., McLeod, H., Green, E.M., … Goldberg, R.M. (2005). A comparison of simple single-item measures and the common toxicity criteria in detecting the onset of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer [Abstract 8087]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from…
    Nielsen, D.L., Bjerre, K.D., Jakobsen, E.H., Cold, S., Stenbygaard, L., Sørensen, P.G., … Andersson, M. (2011). Gemcitabine plus docetaxel versus docetaxel in patients with predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 4748-4754. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.9507
    Nuzzo, F., Morabito, A., De Maio, E., Di Rella, F., Gravina, A., Labonia, V., … de Matteis, A. (2008). Weekly docetaxel versus CMF as adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly breast cancer patients: Safety data from the multicentre phase 3 randomised ELDA trial. Critical Reviews in Oncology-Hematology, 66, 171-180.
    Ohsumi, S., & Sunada, Y. (2004). Techniques for the neurological examination of taxane-induced neuropathy. Breast Cancer, 11, 86-91.
    Pachman, D.R., Barton, D.L., Watson, J.C., & Loprinzi, C.L. (2011). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Prevention and treatment. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 90, 377-387.
    Pestronk, A., Florence, J., Levine, T., Al-Lozi, M.T., Lopate, G., Miller, T., … Stambuk, M. (2004). Sensory exam with a quantitative tuning fork: Rapid, sensitive, and predictive of SNAP amplitude. Neurology, 62, 461-464.
    Peters, C.M., Jimenez-Andrade, J.M., Jonas, B.M., Sevcik, M.A., Koewler, N.J., Ghilardi, J.R., … Mantyh, P.W. (2007). Intravenous paclitaxel administration in the rat induces a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by macrophage infiltration and injury to sensory neurons and their supporting cells. Experimental Neurology, 203, 42-54. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.07.022
    Piedbois, P., Serin, D., Priou, F., Laplaige, P., Greget, S., Angellier, E., … Buyse, M. (2007). Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer: Docetaxel followed by epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (T/EC), or the reverse sequence (EC/T), every 2 weeks, versus docetaxel, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (TEC) every 3 weeks. AERO B03 randomized phase II study. Annals of Oncology, 18, 52-57. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl355
    Polomano, R.C., Mannes, A.J., Clark, U.S., & Bennett, G.J. (2001). A painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat produced by the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Pain, 94, 293-304.
    Postma, T.J., Aaronson, N.K., Heimans, J.J., Muller, M.J., Hildebrand, J.G., Delattre, J.Y., … EORTC Quality of Life Group. (2005). The development of an EORTC quality of life questionnaire to assess chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: The QLQ-CIPN20. European Journal of Cancer, 41, 1135-1139.
    Postma, T.J., Heimans, J.J., Muller, M.J., Ossenkoppele, G.J., Vermorken, J.B., & Aaronson, N.K. (1998). Pitfalls in grading severity of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Annals of Oncology, 9, 739-744.
    Rao, R.D., Flynn, P.J., Sloan, J.A., Wong, G.Y., Novotny, P., Johnson, D.B., … Loprinzi, C.L. (2008). Efficacy of lamotrigine in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, N01C3. Cancer, 112, 2802-2808. doi:10.1002/cncr.23482
    Rao, R.D., Michalak, J.C., Sloan, J.A., Loprinzi, C.L., Soori, G.S., Nikcevich, D.A., … North Central Cancer Treatment Group. (2007). Efficacy of gabapentin in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (N00C3). Cancer, 110, 2110-2118. doi:10.1002/cncr.23008
    Rivera, E., Mejia, J.A., Arun, B.K., Adinin, R.B., Walters, R., Brewster, A., … Valero, V. (2008). Phase 3 study comparing the use of docetaxel on an every-3-week versus weekly schedule in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Cancer, 112, 1455-1461.
    Schneider, B.P., Li, L., Miller, K., Flockhart, D., Radovich, M., Hancock, B.A., … Sledge, G.W. (2011). Genetic associations with taxane-induced neuropathy by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in E5103 [Abstract 1000]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from…
    Seidman, A., Berry, D., Cirrincione, C., Harris, L., Muss, H., Marcom, P.K., … Hudis, C. (2008). Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: Final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 1642-1649.
    Shimozuma, K., Ohashi, Y., Takeuchi, A., Aranishi, T., Morita, S., Kuroi, K., … Hausheer, F.H. (2009). Feasibility and validity of the patient neurotoxicity questionnaire during taxane chemotherapy in a phase III randomized trial in patients with breast cancer: N-SAS BC 02. Supportive Care in Cancer, 17, 1483-1491.
    Shimozuma, K., Ohashi, Y., Takeuchi, A., Aranishi, T., Morita, S., Kuroi, K., … Hausheer, F.H. (2012). Taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy and health-related quality of life in postoperative breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Supportive Care in Cancer, 12, 3355-3364. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1492-x
    Siau, C., Xiao, W., & Bennett, G. (2006). Paclitaxel- and vincristine-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies: Loss of epidermal innervation and activation of Langerhans cells. Experimental Neurology, 201, 507-514. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.05.007
    Sissung, T.M., Mross, K., Steinberg, S.M., Behringer, D., Figg, W.D., Sparreboom, A., & Mielke, S. (2006). Association of ABCB1 genotypes with paclitaxel-mediated peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. European Journal of Cancer, 42, 2893-2896.
    Sloan, J.A., Berk, L., Roscoe, J., Fisch, M.J., Shaw, E.G., Wyatt, G., … National Cancer Institute. (2007). Integrating patient-reported outcomes into cancer symptom management clinical trials supported by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials networks. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 5070-5077.
    Smith, E.L., Beck, S.L., & Cohen, J. (2008). The Total Neuropathy Score (TNS): A tool for measuring chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Oncology Nursing Forum, 35, 96-102.
    Smith, E.L., Pang, H., Cirrincione, C., Fleishman, S., Paskett, E.D., Ahles, T., … Shapiro, C.L. (2012). CALGB 170601: A phase III double blind trial of duloxetine to treat painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) [Abstract CRA9013] [Online exclusive]. Journal of Clinical Oncology. Retrieved from…
    Smith, E.L., Renbarger, J., Hutchinson, R., Wells, E., Burnette, W.B., & Ho, R. (2012). Measuring vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children [Abstract 1416228]. Oncology Nursing Forum, 39, E555.
    Smith, E.M., Cohen, J.A., Pett, M.A., & Beck, S.L. (2010). The reliability and validity of a modified total neuropathy score-reduced and neuropathic pain severity items when used to measure chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving taxanes and platinums. Cancer Nursing, 33, 173-183.
    Swain, S.M., & Arezzo, J.C. (2008). Neuropathy associated with microtubule inhibitors: Diagnosis, incidence, and management. Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology, 6, 455-467.
    Theiss, C., & Meller, K. (2000). Taxol impairs anterograde axonal transport of microinjected horseradish peroxidase in dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro. Cell and Tissue Research, 299, 213-224.
    Tofthagen, C., Overcash, J., & Kip, K. (2012). Falls in persons with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Supportive Care in Cancer, 20, 583-589. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1127-7
    Tofthagen, C.S., McMillan, S.C., & Kip, K.E. (2011). Development and psychometric evaluation of the chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy assessment tool. Cancer Nursing, 34, E10-E20. doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e31820251de
    Untch, M., Fasching, P.A., Konecny, G.E., von Koch, F., Conrad, U., Fett, W., … Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynakologische Onkologie PREPARE Investigators. (2011). PREPARE trial: A randomized phase III trial comparing preoperative, dose-dense, dose-intensified chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and CMF versus a standard-dosed epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel ± darbepoetin alfa in primary breast cancer—Results at the time of surgery. Annals of Oncology, 22, 1988-1998.
    Valero, V., Forbes, J., Pegram, M.D., Pienkowski, T., Eiermann, W., von Minckwitz, G., … Slamon, D.J. (2011). Multicenter phase III randomized trial comparing docetaxel and trastuzumab with docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab as first-line chemotherapy for patients with HER2-gene-amplified metastatic breast cancer (BCIRG 007 study): Two highly active therapeutic regimens. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 149-156.
    Visovsky, C., Collins, M., Abbott, L., Aschenbrenner, J., & Hart, C. (2007). Putting Evidence Into Practice: Evidence-based interventions for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 11, 901-913.
    Visovsky, C., Meyer, R.R., Roller, J., & Poppas, M. (2008). Evaluation and management of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients with cancer. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 12, 243-247.
    von Minckwitz, G., Kummel, S., Vogel, P., Hanusch, C., Eidtmann, H., Hilfrich, J., … German Breast Group. (2008). Neoadjuvant vinorelbine-capecitabine versus docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in early nonresponsive breast cancer: Phase III randomized GeparTrio trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100, 542-551. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn085
    Wickham, R. (2007). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A review and implications for oncology nursing practice. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 11, 361-376.
    Windebank, A.J., & Grisold, W. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Journal of Peripheral Nervous System, 13, 27-46.
    Winer, E.P., Berry, D.A., Woolf, S., Duggan, D., Kornblith, A., Harris, L.N., … Norton, L. (2004). Failure of higher-dose paclitaxel to improve outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 9342. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 2061-2068. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.08.048
    Wolf, S., Barton, D., Kottschade, L., Grothey, A., & Loprinzi, C. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Prevention and treatment strategies. European Jornal of Cancer, 44, 1507-1515.
    Zheng, H., Xiao, W.H., & Bennett, G.J. (2011). Functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria in rats with paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy. Experimental Neurology, 232, 154-161.